ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation

ISRO came to limelight recently for the successful rocket launch of Chadrayaan II mission. Most people are not well aware what exactly is Indian Space Research Organisation? What do they do? Let's know in detail.

Indian Space Research Organisation


ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) is a space research organisation headquartered in Bangalore, India. The main mission of this institute is to study space science and explore space.


In 1962, during Jawaharlal Nehru tenure, Vikram Sarabhai urged for a space research program and then "The Indian National Committee for Space Research" - INCOSPAR was founded under the Department of Atomic Energy(DAE). Later on in 1969, renamed to Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). In 1972, Indian Government formed space commission "Department of Space" - DOS and ISRO works under this commission. ISRO is managed by Department of Space.

About First Satellite

First satellite was Aryabhata (named after the mathematician Aryabhata). It was launcehd by the Soviet Union on 19 April, 1975. Rohini was the first satellite to be placed in Orbit by an Indian Made Launch Vehicle SLV-3 in 1980.

Rockets (Launch Vehicles)

ISRO has developed two rockets: PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle). PSLV Rocked was used to place satellite into polar orbits and GSLV was used to place satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have launched so many communications satellites and Earth observation satellites.

Chandrayaan 1 Mission

ISRO launched spacecraft for Chandrayaan-1 Mission on October 22nd, 2008 and it reached lunar orbit on 8 November 2008. On 14 November 2008, the Moon Impact Probe separated from the Chandrayaan orbiter and landed south pole. It made India the fourth country to place its flag on the Moon. The project cost was Rs 386 Crore INR.

ISRO scientists were the first people to claim presence of water in the Moon.

ISRO declared officially the end of the Chandrayaan 1 mission on 28 August 2009 due to it stopped sending radio signals. It successfully worked for 312 days and had achieved 95% of its planned objectives.

Chandrayaan II Mission

Chandrayaan 2 mission is the second lunar exploration mission by ISRO. ISRO has developed lunar orbiter, a lander and a lunar rover titled 'Pragyan'. The main mission of this mission is to find evidence of water presence in the Moon. On july 22 2019, Chandrayaan II was launched using a GSLV II Rocket. It is expected the lander and rover will land on 7 September 2019. The Rover "Pragyan" will move on the lunar surface for 14 days and is going to perform chemical analysis of the surface. Rover is going to transmit data to the lander and orbiter Chandrayaan II. Chandrayaan II is supposed to orbit around the Moon for one year while performing various missions.

Initially Chandrayaan II mission was scheduled for 15 July 2019 but technical error noticed and called off the mission one hour before the launch countdown. And it was rescheduled for 22 July 2019.

A successful landing would make India the fourth country to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, after the space agencies of the USSR, the USA and China.

Recently Nasa has tweeted ISRO, congratulating for the successful launch of the Mission.

Chandrayaan II launch Video


Rocket are used to reach satellite in to the space. It helps to go against gravitational force and in less span of time, it helps to reach the satellites in the desired orbit inside the space. PSLV and GSLV are popular examples of Rocket.


As the name says, the job of Orbiter is to orbit around a pre-decided orbit path. Chandrayaan I, Chandrayaan II are orbiters. Both are meant to orbit around the Moon at a certain angle and certain height.


Lander is kind of a rocket which separates from orbiter and lands on the surface of a planet.


Rover is special kind of vehicle which is designed to move around rough surface of planets.

Working Principle

Rocket carries Orbiter into the space. Once it reaches space, orbiter separates from rocket and heads to the desired orbit. Orbiter carries lander. The job of lander is to separate from Orbiter and land on the surface of the planet. Lander carries Rover. Once the lander lands on the surface. The rover moves out of lander and move around the surface to perform surface study experiments. The rover sends signal to lander and orbiter. The orbiter sends back the radio signals to Earth (Space Lab: ISRO).


ISRO is a space research organisation. With the current mission Chandrayaan II, ISRO's target is to study the formation of Moon Surface and gather proof of water molecules on the surface of the Moon. 

ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation Reviewed by Pixel Stream on August 03, 2019 Rating: 5

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